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Walking Trails

Writers & Artists

Historic Figures

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Byzantine Empire

Roman Empire

Greek Empire




Glossary of Terms

See the descriptions of categories used to group day trips.

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, an area of countryside in the United Kingdom designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. For example, the Cotswolds. Building is restricted and planning controls are strict in order to preserve the countryside and towns.
Before Present (BP)
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the fact that radiocarbon dating became practicable in the 1950s. The abbreviation "BP", with the same meaning, has also been interpreted as "Before Physics"; that is, before nuclear weapons testing artificially altered the proportion of the carbon isotopes in the atmosphere, making dating after that time likely to be unreliable. Definition from Wikipedia - Before Present.
An Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure found in Scotland, usually standing alone. Their use is uncertain and it is not know if they were roofed. Most are found in northern Scotland.
Cistercian Abbey
The Cistercian Order was a Roman Catholic religious order of monks and nuns founded in Burgundy, France in the late 11th century. It spread throughout France, Britain, Ireland and other European countries in the 12th century. The Medieval architecture is Romanesque, stressing simplicity and functional use. The monks and nuns lived a simple life based around manual labor and self sufficiency. In England the abbeys were dissolved in the 16th century by order of King Henry VIII (the Dissolution of the Monasteries), so only ruins remain. In France many abbeys were closed during the French Revolution in the 18th century, but some survived and are still in use today.
A single-chamber megalithic tomb (also called portal tomb, portal grave or quoit), usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat capstone. Most date from 4000 to 3000 BC (Neolithic). They were usually covered with earth to form a barrow. In many cases that covering has weathered away, leaving the exposed dolmen stones.
A term used in Cornwall, England. Fogou is Cornish for cave. Fogous were created by making an underground cave and lining the walls and roof with slabs of stone. In other parts of Britain, Ireland and Brittany these structures are called "souterrains". They are found in later prehistoric settlements and their use is not known. Perhaps they were used for storage or maybe there had some religious significance. The fogou at Carn Euny Ancient Village is a good example and you can walk into it.
Menhir is another term for a large upright standing stone. This term is commonly used in France.
A cave dweller. Some prehistoric humans were cave dwellers, but most were not.
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO has designated many World Heritage Sites around the world. Read more here UNESCO World Heritage.
Vézère Valley
The Vézère Valley (La vallée de la Vézère) in the Dordogne (Aquitaine region of south-west France) has some of the most significant archaeological finds of the Paleolithic period (200,000 to 10,000 years ago) and many are open to the public. You can visit caves with prehistoric cave art, sites where Stone Age people lived and theme parks. Lascaux, the replica of a cave showing the prehistoric cave art, is here. There are others caves where you can visit the original cave, not a replica. The main towns of the valley are Les Eyzies and Montignac.
Via Domitia
The Via Domitia (La Voie Domitienne), created in 118 BC by Domitius Ahenobarbus, the Proconsul of the Roman province of Narbonensis, was the first Roman road built in Gaul. It linked Italy to Spain across what is now southern France. It was constructed along an ancient trading route. Originally a military road, it ended up being a vital means of communication in this part of the Roman Empire. Read more: Wikipedia - Via Domitia.
Via Flaminia
The Via Flaminia, created in 2nd century BC, ran from Rome north through what is now Lazio, Umbria and Le Marche, to the Adriatic coast at Fano and then along the coast to Rimini (Emilia-Romagna). In Umbria the road split after Narni, with an eastern and western branch before rejoining near Foligno. The modern SS3 highway follows most of the route of the Via Flaminia. The road was constructed by Gaius Flaminius (Consul of the Roman Republic) in the 2nd century BC. Augustus (ruled from 27BC to 14AD) restored the road and rebuilt many of the bridges. Vespasian (ruled from 69 – 79AD) constructed the tunnel at Furlo Gorge in 77AD. Trajan (ruled from 98AD to 117AD) repaired several bridges. Read more: Travel Notes - Italy, Via Flaminia.
World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has designated many World Heritage Sites around the world. Read more: UNESCO World Heritage.